In some cases, ingredients that we often think of as “botanicals” can be added to a mash during fermentation.
For example, Borovička uses juniper in this regard.
“The juniper is ground in a mill until a fine powder. The berry dust is put in a fermentation vat with yeast, nutrients, and warm water. This mash is then fermented and distilled. The resulting juniper distillate is then used as part of the final Borovicka.” [read more]